Yes, there are …

Yes, there are times when something is legitimately not our fault. Blaming others, however, keeps us in a stuck state and is ultimately rough on our own self-esteem.


Plateaus: recognize them, overcome them

Plateau 1: Stick With It

“You’ve got … your Despairing type, who’s fine as long as he’s in the quick-improvement stage before a plateau, but then he hits a plateau and sees himself seem to stall, not getting better as fast or even seeming to get a little worse, and this type gives in to frustration and despair, because he hasn’t got the humbleness and patience to hang in there and slog, and he can’t stand the time he has to put in on plateaux, and what happens?”

“Geronimo!” the other kids yell, not quite in sync.

— David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest

This is often your first stop on your journey to mastery, and it can be a shock to the system. It’s when you begin to realize that you won’t be an exceptional, overnight success—and that mastery is a long way off. It’s when you realize that overnight successes actually take years and years.

Progress junkies seeking short-term gratification give up, and that’s why success turns more on character than it does on talent. University of Pennsylvania psychology professor Angela Duckworth argues in The Plateau Effect that “if you’re myopic and only look at the next moment in time and you base your decisions on ‘what am I going to get out of this in the next nanosecond?’ … then when you hit a plateau, your natural conclusion is to quit and move on to the next thing.” But “if you’re able to think about things in much bigger chunks, you can make good long-term choices and investments of your effort and time.”

Be gritty, and stick with it.

Plateau 2: Practice Deliberately

“You’ve got your Obsessive type … so eager to plateau-hop he doesn’t even know the word patient, much less humble or slog, when he gets stalled at a plateau he tries to like will and force himself off it, by sheer force of work and drill and will and practice, drilling and obsessively honing and working more and more, as in frantically, and he overdoes it and gets hurt, and pretty soon he’s all chronically messed up with injuries, and he hobbles around on the court still obsessively overworking, until finally he’s hardly even able to walk or swing, and his ranking plummets.”
— David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest

In 1885, German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus discovered what’s now known as the “spacing effect.” Ebbinghaus studied gibberish words and showed that his ability to learn and recall those words improved dramatically when he spaced his study session out over time. It’s intuitive to any student who has crammed for an exam and then immediately forgot everything. It’s the phenomenon that your ability to learn a concept improves when you study it multiple times, spaced over a long time span rather than within a short time frame.

On the other hand, the spacing effect seems counterintuitive because it feels like and is misinterpreted by outsiders as laziness. It feels more logical to push forward with hard work, even as we see diminishing, plateauing returns, because the alternative is inaction. The spacing effect demonstrates the role patience plays, in tandem with pushing, in the way our minds learn and improve.

The fact remains that to improve, we need rest and rejuvenation, a connection seen in not just the spacing effect but elsewhere, such as the strong link between sleep and productivity. The risk in impatience and the refusal to slog and pause is not only plateauing results, it’s also the increased exposure to injury and burnout as we push harder and harder, from which it may take a long time to recover.

Don’t push too hard, no matter how tempting it might be.

Plateau 3: Embrace Discomfort

“Then [there’s] maybe the worst type, because it can cunningly masquerade as patience and humble frustration. You’ve got the Complacent type, who improves radically until he hits a plateau, and is content with the radical improvement he’s made to get to the plateau, and doesn’t mind staying at the plateau because it’s comfortable and familiar, and he doesn’t worry about getting off it, and pretty soon you find he’s designed a whole game around compensating for the weaknesses and chinks in the armor the given plateau represents in his game, still—his whole game is based on this plateau now.

And little by little, guys he used to beat start beating him, locating the chinks of the plateau, and his rank starts to slide, but he’ll say he doesn’t care, he says he’s in it for the love of the game, and he always smiles but there gets to be something sort of tight and hangdog about his smile, and he always smiles and is real nice to everybody and real good to have around but he keeps staying where he is while other guys hop plateaux, and he gets beat more and more, but he’s content.”

— David Foster Wallace, Infinite Jest

It starts with acclimation. First you hate the plateau, then you get used to the plateau, and finally, you need the plateau.

The plateau doesn’t feel like a plateau any longer—something foreign and uncomfortable. Instead that flat line becomes the new normal. This happens more easily than you might expect because of the way our brain adapts to stimulus.

If you’ve experienced walking into a subway in the summer, you’ve noticed how a musky, stinky odor will hit your nose quite strongly at first but within a few minutes you’ll hardly notice it. This happens through a process called olfactory fatigue, which is a kind of neural adaptation. Your sensory neurons respond immediately when exposed to new stimuli but that responsiveness decreases with continual exposure to the stimuli at a constant intensity—your mind and body actually go numb.

First you hate the plateau, then you get used to the plateau, and finally, you need  the plateau.

To get things going again, you need exposure to new stimuli, but there’s where the rub is. Trying something new may not only fail to make you better, it might actually make you worse. In fact, you’re likely to get worse before you get better.

The problem is that getting better means putting at risk what you’ve already gained, and that butts up against a powerful human bias of preferring to avoid losses over acquiring gains, called “loss aversion.” It’s an extremely potent bias, too. In a study offering a gamble on a 50/50 coin toss where an individual might lose $20, those people demanded at least a $40 payoff if they won, suggesting people irrationally require gains of twice the amount that they could potentially lose.

The perniciousness of loss aversion is that, to outside observers, it looks like you’re doing it the right way—plugging away steadily and diligently—when in reality, your decision-making is driven by a deep-seated fear of losing what you have. As Jeff Bezos, CEO of Amazon, put it, to break through the status quo with a pioneering innovation, you must reject that external validation and have “a willingness to be misunderstood for long periods of time.” That means pursuing mastery for itself, not for outside approval or self-preservation.

Try new things, and be willing to get worse.

See the big picture and push yourself a bit. Let go of the past.


1.The post is NOT an original creation. It is an abridgment of 3 Tips on Overcoming Learning Plateaus from David Foster Wallace, which was originally published on 99U. The original author is Walter Chen.

2. I have intended to create a quote, but it turned out unsatisfactory. First, you cannot edit your quote, therefore it’s impossible to highlight. Second, notes are meant for short sentences. In the article there are so much I wish to take down, so quoting is not a good option.

3. Don’t confuse practice deliberately(plateau 2) with deliberate practice, which will be discussed in future posts. On this particular topic, I recommend posts by Cal Newport.

Kill the hyperlinks

Reflection on the three-day experiment

Three days away from the Internet has been fruitful. Life became much simpler, and more enjoyable – less time spent online, more time reading books and talking with real people. Even had a lovely conversation with my flatmate, who is often busy but does not reject random conversations in the leisure time.

There is one thing I have to mention: focus became difficult for me when I read. I’m okay with short articles, but when it comes to long documents, I get bored after the first couple of paragraphs.

Can’t focus

Why is my lack of focus a problem? This is a problem because my goal is to read and reflect. Without the ability to focus for hours, I could hardly accomplish either.

Where does the problem come from?

On the fourth day, I sat in front of my laptop, clicked on one link of my favorite website, and felt a spring of instant satisfaction, which came as a total shock.

I thought I was over it. I thought I could be happy enough with just plain old books.

Turns out the Internet is still a monster that easily swallows my limited attention.


“hyperlinks distract people from reading and thinking deeply… what is different and troubling, is that skimming is becoming our dominant role of reading.”

What to do now?

Simply put: kill the monster, eliminate the sources of distraction.

Specifically, I have divided the websites I usually visit into 6 categories, some of which I’ll visit daily and some others only once per month.

Go against the trend

It is difficult to initiate the change, especially when most others are busy staring at televisions or enjoying the endless joy from clicking hyperlinks. I’m sure at this point, none of my friends would be interested in what I’m doing, even though ironically they refresh their facebook constantly during the day for updates.

This time I’m so determined, because I realize the Internet has done something nasty to my brain, and I just don’t like it.

In the past, I would care a lot about what others think of my projects. I would overthink and put too much pressure on myself. The brutal fact is, no one else care about what you do; most of them are just happy following the trends they see in the media, reassured that they are not “outliers” of the society, that the possibility people pointing figures at them is minimized. And the minute you have finally achieved something, they would woo and wow, without recognizing the risk and effort you have devoted.

Maybe I should write about how our world of entertainment has changed our ability to think critically.


1. The quote above on hyperlinks is from The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, by Nicholas Carr.